|Keywords: Metal spray, flame
spray, molten spray, thermal spray, electrotechnologies, metal forming, plasma
spray, metal spraying, arc metal spraying, gas metal spraying, high velocity oxy
fuel spray (HVOF), weld overlays, spray-atomized materials, zinc spraying,
aluminum spraying, metalizing, spray metal, 3D printing, 3D synthesis, metal
forming, casting processes, spray casting, shapemaking, shape making,
net-shape forming, solid freeform fabrication, spray forming, continuous spray
forming of quasi-2D and 3D structures,
See Also: Laser
sintering, electrical discharge
machining (EDM), stereolithography,
metallizing, centrifugal casting, spin casting,
This should give you a basic introduction to metal spray technologies.
I have posted several references to safety issues when working with metal sprays
and related technologies.
Metal Spray Supplies NZ
Ltd - ...New Zealand's Leading Supplier of all Metal Spray Products
- In essence, Metal Spraying involves the melting of a raw material in wire or
powder form, before propelling the atomised material towards the workpiece at
high velocity to create a coating.
- Arc Spray - In the
Arcspray process, the raw material in the form of a pair of metallic wires is
melted by means of an electric arc. The molten material is atomised by
compressed air and propelled towards the workpiece.
- Flame Spray - In
the Flamespray process, the raw material in the form of a single wire, cord or
powder, is melted in an oxygen-fuel gas flame. This molten material is atomised
by a cone of compressed air and propelled towards the workpiece.
- Plasma Spray -
When Plasmaspraying, the plasma is created by an electric arc burning within the
nozzle of a plasma gun. The arc gas is formed into a plasma jet as it emerges
from the gun nozzle. Powder particles are injected into this jet where they melt
and then strike the surface at high velocity to produce a strongly adherent
coating. Almost any material can be sprayed including metals, ceramics and
plastics. The workpiece remains cool because the plasma is localised at the gun.
- HVOF - Liquid fuel
and oxygen are fed via a pre-mixing system and at high pressure into a
combustion chamber where they burn to produce a hot, high pressure gas stream.
This is expanded through a laval type nozzle increasing the gas velocity to
around 1,500 m/sec and the pressure to slightly above atmospheric. At this stage
the powder can easily be injected into the gas stream.
- Metal Spray Suppliers -
- Metalizing Current State of the
Art - Metalizing" is a term applied to pure metal sprayed coats
(not paint) as opposed to other methods of applying metallic coatings such as
hot dip galvanizing or electroplating. Metalizing equipment is mobile,
appropriate for many complex shapes and not limited by size. Metalizing may be
used alone or in combination with other coating systems, and drastically
increases the adhesion of topcoats when they are applied over metalized
coatings. A wide variety of materials can be safely and effectively metalized
including: metal, concrete, glass, plastic, fiberglass, wood, paper, and cloth.
- Metal Spraying of Zinc and
Aluminum in the United Kingdom -A wide range of industries in the United
Kingdom have used zinc and aluminum spraying for the corrosion protection of
either mass produced articles or individual structures. Those reported include
many which can still be seen as case histories demonstrating the long life
possible. Zinc spraying of plastics, impregnated asbestos, and
non-metallic substrates (such as paper in electrical capacitors) is widely used
to provide electrical conductivity or electromagnetic screening properties of
reflective surfaces. Meanwhile, zinc or tin-zinc spraying is used in the
production of moulds and mould tools for the plastics industry.
Coatings - We apply each of the three major types of spray,
including the recently- developed high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process.The
three types are; Spray-and-Fuse, Plasma Spray, and HVOF:
- Nickel-base spray-and-fuse coatings, although developed
over fifty years ago, are still specified by many of our customers because they
are reliable, inexpensive, and they perform very well in service. These coatings
are a special alloy of nickel, chromium, silicon, boron, and carbon. Their major
attribute, in addition to their excellent resistance to galling and abrasive
wear, is that their melting point is only about two thousand degrees
Fahrenheit. This means that they can be sprayed onto a steel component
(which melts at about twenty seven hundred degrees Fahrenheit) , and then
subsequently fused, or melted, without melting the base metal.
- The plasma spray process was developed in the 1950's as an
off-shoot of the rocket industry. The process was developed to enable aerospace
engineers to spray-form non-metallic nose cones. The plasma spray gun is
basically a welding torch into which spray powder is introduced. The expansion
of the inert gases passing through the gun accelerates the spray powder toward
the target. The arc temperature of the plasma torch approaches 30,000 degrees
Kelvin, which is sufficient to soften even the most high-melting materials. This
process is used to apply high-melting materials such as chromium oxide, aluminum
oxide, and titanium oxide.
Corrosion.Com : Protective Paints, Coatings, Linings &
Corrosion Information Server
Los Alamos National Laboratory: Electrotechnologies for Your
Home - The art of metal-forming; technology brings life to
- Scientists at Los Alamos National Laborator, Los Alamos, N.M. have adapted a
metal forming technology with origins in the Cold War for a new application in
the art world.
- Big, metal yard sculptures comprise a growing trend among sculptors and
their enthusiasts. But corrosion-free metals such as stainless steel are
difficult for sculptors to cast or machine. Electroplating the corrosion-free
metal over the sculpture produces a coating too thin for sculptors to polish or
shape. So sculptors are often stuck using inferior metals throughout the piece.
"Not anymore," says Hollis. "The old way involved making a mold and pouring
molten bronze into the mold. What we're able to do is apply different metals on
the outside of the piece."
Article - Los Alamos researchers, Kendall Hollis and
Richard Castro, are adapting industrial technology for spraying
molten metals to [sculpture]. Hollis and Castro earlier this year
contacted sculptor Tom Bollinger, who was managing a local art
foundry and is now based in Arizona. The three have formed a business called
Scintilla Artworks to commercialize the sculpture spraying
technique and develop metal spray technology specific for the needs of the art
Richard J. Prazen
- Image of a Fur Trader, Bas Relief - Welded Steel, Natural Metal Color, and
spray atomizes materials
- Spray - atomized materials and Metal Matrix Composites Al - based The
manufacturing company, PEAK in Germany, concentrates on the material refinement
of aluminium based spray -
atomized materials suitable for forging processes. The optimization of
characteristics are mainly aimed at the introduction of alloy elements (particle
strengthening), the fabrication of homogeneous structure or the intensification
of the alloy contents. In addition materials are produced that were formerly
either impossible or difficult to cast.
Journal - Hazards Associated With Metalworking by Artists,
STEVEN J. WEISS, MD, and STEVEN H. LESSER, MD, New Orleans, La
- ABSTRACT: Metalworking is the constructive sculptural application of various
technologic processes for producing art from ferrous and nonferrous metals.
Self-employed artists and their workplaces are not protected by governmental
agencies. We describe the techniques involved in metalworking processes and
discuss the physical trauma and medical syndromes associated with each process,
as well as safety, prevention, and treatment aspects of the basic syndromes.
Northwest Mettech Corp. is a Canadian based high technology company specializing
in the field of axial injection plasma spray.
DMSE Current Research Activities METALS - Three-Dimensional Printing of
Parts for Metal Tooling - Professor Samuel M.
Michael J. Cima
- Three-dimensional printing is a process by which bulk parts can be built up
by repeatedly applying binder to a thin layer of powder using an ink-jet
printing technology. The process has been well developed for making parts from
ceramic materials, using traditional combinations of ceramic powders and
binders. We are doing research to apply this technology to the production of
metal alloy parts of high hardness and toughness, for applications where
hardenable die steels are conventionally used. We are developing systems in
which hardenable steel powders are printed to produce green porous green bodies,
Steel - Thin-slab Casting, Acme rolls 0.030-inch hot band
Improvement Center Facilities
- Manufacturing Technology Facility (MTF) - The MTF focuses on advanced
materials engineering and processing, integrated product and process design, and
prototype production. Major emphasis is placed on net-shape forming, solid
freeform fabrication, automated machining, and joining processes.
- Powder Parts Production
- Superplastic Forming
- Semi-Solid Metalworking
- Rolling, Forging, Extrusion
- Precision Machining
- Plastic Injection Molding
- Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding
- Sheetmetal Forming
- Spray Casting
National Center for Defense
Excellence - N.049
Demonstration and Validation of Spray Casting - Dr. Eric Brooman
- The goal of this program is to provide an environmentally and economically
acceptable coating process to replace currently used hard chromium
electroplating processes. The spray casting process utilizes
pressure-controlled atomization to apply liquid metal droplets that form a
coating on the desired substrate.
- Technology Justification
- Provides homogenous coatings of controlled composition
- Eliminates health hazards (enclosed operation, near-zero emissions)
- Reduces hazardous waste generation (solid overspray material collected and
- Decreases overall maintenance and material costs.
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